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Jornadas de formación de equipos técnicos estatales 2011-2012.
Queretaro, Quer. October 24-26, 2011.

Special thanks to professors from FES Acatlán, UNAM who shared this course with english teachers from all over the country. We hope to see you soon.

Communicative competencies of english language III

DEVOLPING TEACHER & STUDENT MOTIVATION

Presenter: Jose Luis

Do you feel like this?


OR THIS

OR EVEN THIS?!!

 

Are you unmotivated?

 

MOTIVATION

“Motivation is probably the most important characteristic that students [or teachers] bring to a learning task.”
(O’Malley & Chamot,1990)

WHAT IS MOTIVATION?

Motivation is having the desire and will to do something.

Motivation can affect learning in the following ways:
Directs behavior toward particular goals.
Leads to increased effort and energy.
Increases initiation of, and persistence in, activities.
Enhances cognitive processing.
Determines what consequences are reinforcing.
Leads to improved performance.
(Ormrod, 2000).

MASLOW’S HEIRARCHY OF NEEDS

Self
Transcendence
Self-Actualization_
____Aesthetic____
_____Cognitive_____

______Esteem______
___Belongingness and Love__
__________Safety/Security_______
____________Physiological__________

MASLOW’S THEORY OF MOTIVATION

Humans have instinctive needs. Unsatisfied needs are what motivate behavior.
Needs may be categorized into “deficiency” (basic) needs and “growth” (self-actualization) needs.
Only when “deficiency” needs are met can one be motivated by “growth needs”.
The higher that one progresses up the hierarchy the more psychologically and spiritually healthy a person is.
The more that growth needs are met, the stronger they become.

INTRISIC VS. EXTRINSIC

Intrinsic Motivation means you are motivated to do something because you want to. (ex. personal satisfaction, accomplishment, curiosity).

Extrinsic Motivation means you are motivated by outside factors. (ex. grades, promotion, money, punishment)

Good learners and teachers are intrinsically motivated. Intrinsic motivation is stronger and lasts longer.

Make personal goals for your learning or teaching and periodically assess your progress.

STUDENT MOTIVATION

“Intrinsically motivated students tackle assigned tasks willingly and are eager to learn classroom material…they are also more likely to process information in effective ways … by engaging in meaningful learning, elaboration and visual imagery”
(Ormrod, 2000)
“Students who have experienced success in learning have developed confidence in their own ability to learn.”
(O’Malley & Chamot,1990)

TEACHER MOTIVATION

Recent studies have shown fairly conclusively that teachers are motivated more by intrinsic than by extrinsic rewards. (Ellis, 1984)
Teachers perceive their needs and measure their job satisfaction by factors such as:
participation in decision-making
use of valued skills
freedom and independence
challenge
expression of creativity
opportunity for learning. (Pastor and Erlandson in Ellis, 1984)

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TEACHER AND STUDENT MOTIVATION

“ Students who achieve at the highest levels are most likely to be those whose teachers have confidence in what they themselves can do for their students”
(Ashton,1985) in Ormrod (2000).
“Students’ intrinsic motivation is associated with more teacher engagement toward their work”.
(Pelletier et al., 2002)

How can teachers develop intrinsic motivation?

Reflective Teachers are Empowered Teachers

REFLECT! ...ON YOUR ROLE AS TEACHER.

“You have a set of beliefs about how the people of this world should behave toward one another. You have convictions about the quality of life, the shape of liberty, and the pursuit of happiness…
You are not merely a language teacher…
You are an agent for change in a world in desperate need of change: change
from competition to cooperation,
from powerlessness to empowerment,
from conflict to resolution,
from prejudice to understanding.” (H.D. Brown, 2001)

WHAT IS REFLECTIVE TEACHING?

Richards defines it as:
An activity or process in which experience is recalled, considered and evaluated in relation to a broader purpose.

It is a response to a past experience and involves conscious recall and examination of the experience as a basis for evaluation and decision making and as a source for planning and action (Farrell 1995).

Why should new teachers practice reflective teaching?

The reflective process allows developing teachers latitude to experiment within a framework of growing knowledge and experience…. It begins the developing teacher’s path toward becoming an expert teacher.  
(Lange 1990)

Why should experienced teachers practice reflective teaching?

“For many experienced teachers, many classroom routines and strategies are applied almost automatically and do not require a great deal of conscious thought or reflection…in order for experience to play a productive role, it is necessary to examine such experience systematically”.
(Richards and Lockhart,1996)

HOW CAN A TEACHER PRACTICE REFLECTIVE TEACHING?

[This approach] involves teachers in
collecting information about their teaching
either individually or
through collaborating with a colleague,
making decisions about their teaching,
deciding if initiatives need to be taken,
and selecting strategies to carry them out.
(Richards and Lockhart, 1996)

Some Reflective Teaching Techniques:

Keeping a teaching journal

Write lesson reports  

Carry out surveys and questionnaires.

Audio or videotape lessons.

Carry out action research

Observe or be observed by peers or colleagues.
(Richards and Lockhart, 1996)

DECIDE WHERE YOU WANT TO GO WITH YOUR TEACHING!

Get Motivated! Get together and… Get going to new frontiers in your English Teaching!

Reflective Teacher’s Action Plan

1. Identify personal areas for improvement
2. Brainstorm with colleagues:
- strategies to be implemented
- a method for evaluating whether or not goals have been achieved

COLLABORATIVE GOAL SETTING

Which qualities do you want to improve?

Pacing / Time management

In groups brainstorm:
Strategies for improving
Write lesson plan with smaller increments of time accounted for.
Be strict with digressions
Share days objectives with your students and ask them to help you keep on track.
Get my partner to observe my class with a detailed checklist and make suggestions.
Observe a colleague’s class to see what helps and hinders her time management.

Method of measurement
If after one month of classes I consistently finish everything in my lesson plan, I will consider myself cured.

Good Language Teaching Characteristics

TECHNICAL KNOWLEDGE
1. Understands the linguistic systems of English phonology, grammar and discourse.
2. Comprehensively grasps basic principle of language learning and teaching.
3. Has fluent competence in speaking, writing , listening to , and reading English.
4. Knows through experience what it is like to learn a foreign language.
5. Understands the close connection between language and culture.
6.Keeps up with the field through regular reading and conference/workshop attendance.

PEDAGOGICAL SKILLS
7.Has a well thought out, informed approach to language teaching.
8.Understands and has experience using a wide variety of techniques.
9. Efficiently designs and executes lesson plans.
10. Monitors lessons as they unfold and makes effective mid-lesson alterations.
11. Effectively perceives students’ linguistic needs.
12. Gives optimal feedback to students.
13. Stimulates interaction, cooperation and teamwork in the classroom.
14. Uses appropriate principles of classroom management.
15. Uses effective, clear presentation skills.
16. Creatively adapts textbook material and other audio, visual, and mechanical aids.
17. Innovatively creates brand new materials when needed.
18. Uses interactive, intrinsically motivating techniques to create effective tests.

INTERPERSONAL SKILLS
19. Is aware of cross-cultural differences and sensitive to students’ cultural traditions.
20.Enjoys people, shows enthusiasm, warmth, rapport and appropriate humor.
21. Values the opinions and abilities of students.
22. Is patient in working with students of lesser ability.
23. Offers challenges to students of exceptionally high ability.
24. Cooperates harmoniously and candidly with colleagues (fellow teachers).
25. Seeks opportunities to share thoughts, ideas and techniques with colleagues.

PERSONAL QUALITIES
26. Is well-organized, conscientious in meeting commitments, and dependable.
27. Is flexible when things go awry.
28. Maintains an inquisitive mind in trying out new ways of teaching.
29. Sets short-term and long-term goals for continued professional growth.
30. Maintains and exemplifies high ethical and moral standards.
(H.D. Brown, 2001)

NOW, YOU KNOW WHERE YOU’RE GOING…

What about the learners?

How can we motivate them?

STRATEGIES FOR MOTIVATING LEARNERS

Discuss internal and external reasons for taking the course.

Research and discuss the place of English in the world, in the community and in the learner’s current and future life.

WHY LEARN ENGLISH From http://www.antimoon.com/other/whylearn.htm

Communication
About 1,500,000,000 people in the world speak English. Another 1,000,000,000 are learning it.
75% of the world’s letters and postcards are written in English.
Almost all international conferences and competitions are conducted in English. For example, the Olympics and the Miss World contest.

Access to Knowledge
Most pages on the Web. That’s over a billion (1,000,000,000) pages of information!
Science. In 1997, 95% of the articles in the Science Citation Index were written in English. Only about 50% of them were from English-speaking countries.
Enjoy Popular Culture
Movies, books and songs are more interesting in their original version.

Strategies for Motivating Learners

Brainstorm fun ways to use English outside of class.

Set personal goals (including new strategies to be implemented) which can be tracked in a reflective journal.

How to Develop Learners’ Intrinsic Motivation from http://members.shaw.ca/priscillatheroux/motivation.html

Strategy
Help student develop plan of action.
Relate learning to student needs
Explain or show why learning a skill is important
Create and/or maintain curiosity
Provide a variety of activities and sensory stimulations
Provide games and simulations
Set goals for learning

Examples
Needs analysis discussions and questionnaires
Use authentic tasks and materials.
Explain how the lesson relates to the real world.
Use inductive and task-based learning models
Implement interactive activities which appeal to multiple intelligences
Role plays, team projects
Use self-assessment rubrics

STRATEGIES FOR DEVOLPING LEARNERS’ INTRINSINC MOTIVATION

Help students develop plan of action.
Brainstorm fun ways to use English outside of class.
Relate learning to student needs
Discuss internal and external reasons for taking the course.
Explain or show why learning a skill is important
Research and discuss the place of English in the world, in the community and in the learner’s current and future life.
Create and/or maintain curiosity
Provide a variety of activities and sensory stimulations
Provide games and simulations
Set personal goals for learning

HOW WILL YOU MOTIVATE YOUR STUDENTS?

Create a M.A.P.
MOTIVATION ACTION PLAN

What are the problems in your classes?
Which strategies can change that?
Which specific activities can you implement to motivate the students in your classes?

Remember:
“If you enjoy what you do, you'll never work another day in your life.”

 

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